Crusaders Group

On Christian Crusade-Guilt

“Is Christian Crusade-Guilt Justified?”

Another Patton Associates S-M-A-R-TBriefing[1]

 Apologies for the Crusades are Routinely Given

Many Christians plus western, liberal media commonly apologize for the Christian Crusades. Muslim apologists regularly demand them.[2]

Muslim Riot
Islamic culture dictates Infidels may not ‘offend’ Muslims.

As an example of the latter, Al-Azhar, in the early 1990s, was the highest ranking religious authority in Egypt. He was then the most respected Sunni Muslim authority in worldwide Islam (Islam means submission).[3] In 1995, he demanded that the Vatican give the worldwide Muslim Ummah (people group or culture) an ‘official’ apology for the Christian Crusades.

Are regular apologies for the Crusades warranted? Are they as justifiably-demanded as most Christians, and just about all western secular media, believe? You will be able to make your own ‘informed’ decision after reviewing the seldom-mentioned contextual, and historical facts included below about both Christian, plus Muslim, incursions into each other’s lands.

The Crusades in Historical Context

In the Seventh Century, about six hundred years after Jesus walked the earth, Egypt, Libya, and all of North Africa were populated by Christians. These areas had been “Christian lands” since at least 300 A.D. So also were the countries now are called Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Asia Minor (modern Turkey and Greece).

The churches which the First Century Christian writer, Paul of Tarsus, addressed in his letters collected in the Christian “New Testament” (New Covenant) were all located in Asia Minor. North of current Greece, in the area between Eastern and Western Europe, were then the lands that would become the domains of the Slavs, many of whom were Christians.

Antioch and Constantinople (now Istanbul), in modern Turkey, and Alexandria, in modern Egypt, were three of the most important Christian centers of the first millennium.

Muslim Conquest Map
Map of Muslim Jihadi Conquest of the Mediterranean World 7th – 11th Centuries

After 622 A.D., Muhammad his Caliph successors, and their Muslim jihadis flooded out of the Arabian desert like a sand tsunami. As most modern textbooks put it, without much, if any, historical context, the areas noted by the arrows in the graphic to your left, plus large parts of Persia and India further east …”became Muslim”.

In reality, the transition from Christian to Muslim religious dominance all around the Mediterranean and beyond was blood-soaked, cataclysmic, and extremely violent. You can view an interesting, interactive video map of the extent and number of Islam’s brutal, constant, rapines over the last 1400 years of jihad here.

Muslims took these lands by ruthless conquest. They did so in obedience to the commands of Allah[4], Islam’s deity.  The Koran [Qur’an in Arabic] is the book Allah allegedly dictated to Islam’s Prophet, Muhammad.  Koran  5:33, 8:39, 9:5, and 9:29, plus over 100 more hateful, similar verses, command worldwide supremacy of Islam be implemented by Muslim violence against all infidels (every non-Muslim) by every true Muslim.

In the Koran and Hadith, the top two Muslim Holy Books, Allah commands the murder of all infidels living in any area in which Muslims have sufficient power …if they refuse to convert to Islam. Non-converting ‘Infidels’ only other option is to submit to becoming annual-extortion-paying, subjugated serfs, called dhimmis[5].

The real horrors of dhimmitude, commanded throughout 1400 years of Islamic history down to today, is disguised under Muslim, apologetic ‘liefare’ called “taqiyya”[6] in Arabic. The horror of ‘D’himmitude’ is disguised as a so-called “protected status”. It was, and is still, truly only Muslim leader protection of Christians from their Muslim neighbours in Islamic lands. The so-called ‘protection’ is often ineffective.

Islamic dhimmitude is actually institutionalized persecution and racial subjugation of non-Muslims  …especially now for Christians and Jews. D’himmitude is commanded by Koran 9:29. The “Islamic Caliphate” (IS aka ISIS & ISIL) is practising it today, throughout Iraq and Syria where they have power, after officially reinstituting it first in Christian-populated Mosul, in 2014. It is the only-sometimes-offered, sole alternative to conversion or death, in IS’s Koran-commanded genocide of Christians.

What Are The Historical Facts About The European Crusades

Following are the well-documented facts[7] regarding the Christian reaction to Muslim conquest and its consequences for non-Muslims. The European powers defensive reaction is called the Crusades.[8]

They were unarguably defensive because the first Crusade only followed after 400+ years of Muslim violent, jihadist activity in then-Christian Egypt, Syria and the rest of the the Middle East, plus North Africa as well as parts of both Eastern and Western Europe. The non-Christian lands of India and Persia also were mauled by Muslim feral fury during the same period.

The first Crusade began in 1095 almost 500 years after Muhammad and his Muslim warriors started their barbarous conquest of other more mature, older Christian, Jewish, and pagan cultures. Their goal was, and still is today, world conquest for the supremacy of Islam.

Islam’s supremacy throughout the world by any means necessary is undeniably commanded by the hundreds of passages in the Koran and Hadith.

The first Crusade was:

Chaos, flames & destruction
War is hell! But violent Jihad is worse!
  1. 460 years after the first Christian city was brutally overrun by Muslim armies,457 years after Jerusalem was conquered by Muslim armies,
  2. 453 years after non-Islamic Egypt was taken by Muslim armies,
  3. 443 after Muslims first plundered Christian Italy,
  4. 427 years after Muslim forces first laid siege to the Christian capital of Constantinople,
  5. 380 years after Spain was conquered by Muslim armies,
  6. 363 years after France was first attacked by Muslim armies,
  7. 249 years after Rome itself was sacked by a Muslim army, and
  8. authorized by the Roman Catholic Pope, Urban II, only after centuries of Muslim church burnings, killings, dhimmitude enslavement[9] plus forced conversions of Christians to Islam.

Urban II, European Kings, and their so-called Christian subjects were obeying God by going to war in the First Crusade against their Muslim attackers to protect their fellow citizens and Christians elsewhere! (Romans 13:1-7) However, true Followers of Jesus were not! (Matthew 5:38-48)

In those violent times, war against the Muslims was, for European States not yet overrun by Jihadists, the only remaining Biblical means to protect themselves plus Christian pilgrims going to and from Jerusalem and other parts of the Biblical Holy Land[10]. Christian pilgrims were being harassed, raped, and murdered by Muslims almost all along the way plus while returning to Europe.

Negotiations, huge tribute payments, and other peaceable means had been repeatedly tried, and failed, during the entire prior 400+ years of bloody Muslim rampage around the Mediterranean world. Also, Muslims were desecrating Christian Holy sites like they have been doing, again following 9/11, after Islamists turning “Arab Spring” into “Christian Winter”.

Here is how Princeton scholar and Islamic expert Bernard Lewis summarizes the situation by 1095:

“At the present time, the Crusades are often depicted as an early expansionist imperialism – a prefigurement of the [the activities of] modern European countries. To people of the time, both Muslim and Christian, they were no such thing.’ So what were they? ‘The [first] Crusade was a delayed response to the jihad, the holy war for Islam, and its purpose was to recover by war what had been lost by war – to free the holy places of Christendom and open them once again, without impediment, to Christian pilgrimage.”

By the time the Crusades finally began, Muslim armies had conquered two-thirds of the world previously populated peacefully by Christians and other culture groups …notwithstanding the violence of the Roman Empire. The Romans, prior to Emperor Constantine, had subjugated and martyred Christians …regularly. 

Roman persecution lasted only about 300 years before Muhammad. But, the Muslim Caliphs trumped the Romans historically-documented horror story of crucifixion and slavery …constantly. They’ve continued to do so right through to the early 20th Century, 1400 years later under the Ottoman Caliph based in Turkey, and now again through the barbarity of Boko Haram in Africa, al Qaeda, IS, Hamas, and the MUslim Brotherhood in the Middle East, and less familiar jihadi groups in countries all the way across the “10/40 Window”.

“When accusing the West of imperialism”, one major historian of Islamic Jihad[11], Paul Fregosi, writes, “Muslims are obsessed with the Christian Crusades but have forgotten their own, much grander Jihad [against Christians and their lands throughout history.”

Muslim "Dome of the Rock" atop Judaism's Holiest Hill  and original location of their Temple destroyed by the Romans in A.D 70.
Muslim “Dome of the Rock” atop Judaism’s Holiest hill and the original location of their Temple destroyed by the Romans in A.D 70.

The lands in dispute during each Crusade were the ancient “Holy Lands”, including the Jerusalem of Christendom. Christians had flourished there for centuries before Muhammad’s armies called them idolaters, then, caused them to convert, be enslaved, or murdered them.

If Westerners had no right to re-capture for Christendom these so-called Muslim lands, why then did Muslims have the right to invade them in the first place?

Most Christians do not apologize for engaging in state-sponsored, so-called “just wars” in defense against attacks by evil states in WWI & II. The current “War on Terrorism”, in line with God’s permissiveness in Romans 13:1-7. Therefore, why should Christians have to repeatedly apologize for similar defensive, just-war-actions during the Crusades?

Whatever undeniable sins Christians committed during their Crusades, and I do NOT justify them as a Jesus Follower, history documents that they were a defensive reaction to almost 500 years of prior brutal Muslim jihads?

Were the Crusades, truthfully, not simply a belated reactive response by Western states to Muslim attacks against innocents?

Were not the Crusades a defensive attempt to reestablish a breakwater to protect against the tsunami of aggressive, evangelistic Islam that had engulfed the Catholics’ sister, Eastern Orthodox Church, plus huge geographic areas populated by Roman Catholics?

Might you not agree in view of the above historical facts, that radical, violent jihadists[12] must accept at least as much corporate responsibility for western European nations initiating the Crusades as they do for current, worldwide Islamic religious-based terrorism?

What is the truth?
Truth is truth!

History documents Muslim complicity in provoking the Crusades despite much politically-correct comment to the contrary by many academics, the Western liberal media, plus some politicians, like U.S. President Obama and British Prime Minister Cameron.

Even Pope Francis is saying we non-Muslims must curb our freedom of expression when discussing the horrors of Islam, the religion, not just Sharia Law, Islam’s lifestyle-dictates, and Islamism, its political ideology. He condemns Islamophobia here. However, it is a legitimate and defensible word in the context of supremacist Islam’s violence while implying that to object to the Koran’s promotion of violence hate all Muslims.

That many Christians and others apologize for the horrors of Islam, the supremacist, violent religion, not all Muslims, is the result of ignorance of the undebatable historical facts or demonic denial.

What Can You Do To Defend Against Radical, Supremacist Islam Today?

Prayer works
Violence begets more violence but prayer works.

Please share this article’s public link with others so they can learn the truth. It is unknown by many. It is seldom disclosed by Western media because of dangerous and insidious political-correctness.

Please pray for Christians being persecuted in Muslim-dominated areas around the world not just in Arab lands …as well as for their Islamic persecutors. Ask God to motivate truly peaceable Muslims to demand a re-interpretation of their hateful, violent Holy Books.

Finally, please ask God to motivate so-called moderate Muslims to choose not to side culturally, through silent consent, with the violence of radical jihadists in “advancing Islam” as Koran 8:39 commands of every faithful Muslim.

Every survey which I’ve seen, to date, confirms that most Muslims worldwide side with their terrorist co-religionists …even a large minority in the West. Many surveys are linked from within the latter link.

The fact that the vast majority of moderate Muslims, even in the West, do NOT speak out against their radical co-religionists contributes, according to experts in Muslim culture, to increasing violence against Christians by Muslim terrorists, plus even so-called “ordinary Street Muslims”.

Because of Islam’s violence-promoting Koran and Hadith, plus the all-encompassing, worldwide nature of Muslim culture, “silent consent” to jihadist violence all over the world is escalating …despite the “War on Terror. It contributes to the suffering which millions of Christians are experiencing worldwide, daily, through extortion (Quran 9:29), forced conversion (3:85-91), kidnapping, (23:5-7) misogynistic treatment (4:11), rape/sodomization, sexual-enslavement (4:25), plus crucifixion and other gruesome forms of slaughter (5:33).

This violence against Christians also is spreading in any area where Muslims are powerful, like in northern Nigeria …a nation supposedly dominated by Christians. It’s in Nigeria where about 85% of Muslim violence currently takes place under Boko Haram’s brutality.

Truly I tell you, if anyone says to this mountain, ‘Go, throw yourself into the sea,’ and does not doubt in their heart but believes that what they say will happen, it will be done for them. Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. ~ Jesus in Mark 11:23-24 

Here’s your closing S-M-A-R-TTip™

Christian crusade guilt is not justifiable by objective, non-revisionist history and recurring Islamic demands for an apology are unwarranted! ~ gfp ’42

GaryFPatton
Gary F. Patton
Life & Business Coach

Please contact me as noted below if I can answer any of your questions regarding this article or help you in any way further. I am a Jesus Follower who has been studying Islam, its history and its scriptures for some time. Also, I have a Masters Degree in History. In addition, spirituality is a life-skills coaching specialty for me. I normally waive my regular fees when mentoring in this area.[13]

If your time for help is not ripe for you now, please drop me a line at the address immediately below this paragraph. I’d appreciate hearing what you think and how you feel about the above.

By clicking here, you can e-mail me regarding questions about this article, to request other stress management information and to be added to my S-M-A-R-TBriefing™ Mailing List.

With my compliments and permission to reproduce, without change or profiteering, including the following:

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Tags apologetics, Christianity, conquest, Crusades, d’himmi, dhimmitude, fear, One God, Father, hadith, heavenly Father, historical truth, honesty, Holy Spirit, Isa, Islam, Islamist, Islamization, Jesus, jihad, jihadism, Koran lies, liefare, love, Muslim, Pact of Umar (Omar), perspective, personal growth, Qur’an, relationships, Sharia Law, spirit, spirituality, salvation, Scripture, stress, taqiyya, thinking, Trinity, war, Yeshua,

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[1] Hi! I’m Gary F. Patton, “The People Development Guy”. I provide you with this Briefing, plus any Website(s) linked to it, on the basis of the disclaimer you can read here. Enjoy! gfp

[2] By single clicking any of my hyperlinks, a Pop-up Window will share additional information about the Web Site you can choose to visit by clicking the exposed link. You’ll find this helpful. For example, when you click gfp ’42™, inserted after each of my S-M-A-R-TTips™, you will discover that this link, which is imbedded in my copyright & trademark designation, connects to one of my Websites for more FREE S-M-A-R-TTips™.

[3] A “Sunni Muslim” is a member of the largest of the three major Islamic divisions. Sunnis are variously estimated to compose 75-85% of world-wide Islam …called collectively the “Ummah”. The latter is an Arabic word meaning “community” or “nation”. ‘Shiites’ are the second largest subdivision of the Ummah with “Twelvers” (“Mahdists”) being the largest Shiite sect and Ismailis the second. Sufis are a third main, but considerably smaller, branch of world Islam after the Sunnis and Shiites. There are other smaller sects as well, like the Mouride Brotherhood in Senegal.

[4] ‘Allah’, originally, and for thousands of years before Islam, was the name of the “living God” used by Jews, and after 30 A.D., the name which some Jesus Followers used in worshipping their celestial King and Messiah. Those Followers who used this word for God knew Him as three unique personalities …Father, Son and Holy Spirit… but One spiritual existence.

   The term was being used still in the Middle East hundreds of years before Muhammad. The Islamic ‘Allah’ is not, however, the same God Christians and Jews worship. Some scholars say that the Muslim Allah is one of the many pagan, Arabian gods idolized at the time of Muhammad by that name. These scholars say Muhammad used a chief god’s name, which the Bible would call a demon, for his new religion, Islam.

[5] By Allah’s command in Koran 9:29, a Dhimmi is an Infidel, often a Christian or Jew, who refuses conversion to Islam and who is not slaughtered after an area in which they live is overrun by violent-jihad-practising Muslims. Every Islamic School of Jurisprudence, regardless of Muslim Sect, currently agrees that Allah commands that a Dhimmi must be humiliatingly subjugated. You’ll discover a relatively accurate, non-politically correct outline of d’himmitude’s serf-like, semi-slave status here.

   There are many forms this subjugation by Muslims takes. Their main guide is outlined in 7th Century apocryphal document called the “Conditions of Umar”. It is apologetically and politically-correctly mislabeled ”The Pact of Umar” by Muslims. You can read Sheikh Umar’s appalling terms under which only an Infidel may live in Muslim-controlled areas here.

   You’ll note that “The Conditions” are far from a mutually-agreed ‘pact’ which is usually mutually beneficial. They are a harsh set of disgusting, racist regulations imposed on non-Muslims when they refuse to convert to Islam. They exist as the only alternative to a non-converting non-Muslim’s execution.

   Subjugation includes the extortion of an at least annual, and often onerous, poll tax called ‘Jizya’. Individual Muslim extortionists as well as the members of whole Muslim communities still today use Umar’s Conditions against Christians in areas all around the world where Islamic terrorists are powerful. This sometimes occurs with government knowledge, e.g., Muslim terrorist-controlled Gaza & West Bank (prior Judea).    

   However, full d’himmitude status as outlined in Umar’s Conditions is enforced still today in some Muslim-dominated parts of the world. For example in early 2014, in the areas controlled by “The Caliphate” (aka Islamic State of Iraq & Syria” [ISIS]), this powerful, wealthy terrorist group forced Christians to accept the historical Koranic three-fold choice of true Islam in power …convert, d’himmitude, or be murdered.

   Muslim apologists employ “liefare”, in Arabic called ‘taqiyya’ and defined in Footnote 6 immediately below, to explain away these Conditions on Wikipedia as supposedly beneficent. Apologists cunningly use “stealth jihad” by arguing the Conditions, when employed still, are a form of  protection from harsher treatment.

  Today, immigration is the stealth tool used by Muslim leaders to Islamicize areas they have not previously controlled. This already has happened in much of Europe. There, whole communities have been turned into dhimmitude-like “Sharia Zones” in which non-Muslims are publicly humiliated, plus individuals and businesses are extorted for mafia-like protection money.

[6]  One or more of Koran 3:28, 16:106, & 66:2, among others, are the verses usually cited by Muslim Imams and all Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence as justifying ‘taqiyya’ against infidels. In Koran 8:30, Allah actually models himself for Muslims as the “best of deceivers” in relationships. Apologists intentionally mistranslate ‘deceivers’ to the more politically-correct ‘planners’ according to linguists.

[7] U.S. author, Robert Spencer (1962 -) wrote “The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades)” in 1995. His context was Al-Azhar’s demand for a Vatican apology for the Crusades. Mr. Spencer’s book is a well-documented history of both Islam’s violent expansion and the Christian Crusades. It counters the guilt-ridden, revisionist myth spread by Muslim apologists and Western liberal media that is believed by most Christians.  

   The popular 2005 epic action-movie, “Kingdom of Heaven“, is a classic example of this Islamic, apologetic myth. You’ll discover a brief outline of Mr. Spencer’s book at the Toronto Public Library Web site.

   A 2009 book, by Canadian Muslim author and journalist, Tarek Fatah is “Chasing A Mirage …The Tragic Illusion of an Islamic State”. In it, he argues that the true “state of Islam” has been hijacked by Islamists whom have waged a 1,400 year, violent jihadist quest for the political “State of Islam”. Whether or not a reader accepts Mr. Fatah’s documentation, his thesis is academic, plus dangerous for Infidels to depend on for protection from the Islamists. Supremacist Islamist’s interpretation of the Koran, Hadith, and  Shariah Law is the rule supported by every Islamic School of Jurisprudence, regardless of major Muslim sect. You’ll discover a brief outline of Mr. Fatah’s book here.

[8] You can read a brief, historically-accurate outline of the seven Christian Crusades from 1095 to 1291 by clicking here. The author outlines the barbarity and cruelty of both sides, Christian and Muslim. Without excusing either side, despicable actions by soldiers and their commanders and states were common in the ancient warfare.

[9]   For a description of Islamic ‘dhimmi’ status see Footnote 5 above on page 3.

[10]   Muslims also had been desecrating Christian Holy sites as they’ve done continuously for the 1000 years, since the First Crusade, as demonstrated again by Muslims themselves, not just terrorists, turning “Arab Spring” into “Christian Winter” as they did with their election of President Morsi in Egypt.

[11]  Mr. Fregosi’s quotation is from “Jihad in the West: Muslim conquests from the 7th to the 21st centuries“. You’ll discover a brief outline of the book on the Toronto Public Library Web site.

[12]  The western press, regularly uses the term ‘Islamist’ as a synonym for violent jihadist. Islamic apologists, including Muslims, regularly do so in an attempt to distance violent terrorists from ‘Islam’. Apologists and liberal media often argue that Islam is a world religion and distinct from terrorist Islamism which they say is a non-Islamic, political ideology.

   Please don’t be fooled by this sleight-of-hand charade. Islam is a complete lifestyle which includes a political ideology. As a complete lifestyle, not just a religion, Islam dictates behaviour for all areas of every Muslim’s life including economics, relationships, and every other dimension of life under its “Sharia Law” (“Shariah in Arabic meaning ‘path’ or ‘way’).  

   In the Koran and Hadith, Islam itself commands the murderous, politicized, and violent ideology which reporters correctly label Islamism as you’ll discover from the Koranic links I include below. It is also how Islam is currently interpreted by every Muslim School of Jurisprudence and, therefore, supposed to be  taught by all Imams, Mullahs, and scholars around the world!

   There is considerable evidence that radical Islam is effectively North American Mosques as terrorist recruiting grounds, especially of young, homegrown zealots. On August 28, 2013, it was widely reported that the New York Police Department secretly had declared Mosques to be terrorist organizations. It continues to investigate their leaders and members as outlined in this ABC News report plus this video. Canada’s Government also is concerned about what is taught in our many mosques. Our country’s leaders regularly refuse entry to jihadist speakers contracted to come here by so-called moderate, peaceable Imams in Canada. Prime Minister Stephen Harper called “Islamism the biggest threat to Canada“ on public TV in the Fall of 2011. Since then, Government concern has NOT lessened.

   What the all Islamic terrorist groups, like al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, ISIS, and the Muslim Brotherhood, believe and practise against non-Muslims are the actual, repeated commands in Islam’s two key Holy Books. Regrettably for so-called moderate, allegedly peace-loving Muslims, who may NOT know what their own Holy Books contain, hatred for all non-Muslims, especially Christians and Jews, is what Allah demands, e.g. among others, Koran 2:221, 4:52-57, 4:153-159, 5:59-64, & 60:4. Allah also commands the de-friending all non-Muslims, e.g. among others, Koran 3:118-120, 5:51-57, & 60:9. The one exception to de-friending an Infidel is to permit our evangelization, and especially our manipulation (taqiyya) to advance Islam, e.g. among others, Koran 3:28, & 8:30. Muslim Holy Books also command unremitting war against all other faiths, plus agnosticism and atheism, until Islam is supreme and dominates the earth, e.g., Koran 2:216-218, 4:76, 5:33, 8:39, 9:5, & 9:29.

   The few seemingly peaceable verses in the Koran are all overruled by the later hateful and violent ones because of the Islamic “Doctrine of Abrogation” as stated clearly in Koran 2:106 & 16:101. This Doctrine is supported and taught by every Islamic Sect’s School of Jurisprudence. Properly-taught Muslims are aware of this core Doctrine and its effect on the earlier peaceful verses regarding Infidels.

   Please also know that the words “Islamism” and “Islamist”, which many Muslims dislike and reject as inaccurate descriptive terms for violent practitioners of Islam, were not coined by western academics nor journalists. These terms come instead from the Muslim Brotherhood (MB). This radical Islamic group is a Muslim front for, and organizer of, worldwide terrorism according to national security analysts. It is the MB with huge Muslim Street support who controlled the government of Egypt under President Morsi, until July 2013. It is the same group, which includes many ordinary, so-called Street Muslims, who are still currently extorting, force-converting, kidnapping for ransom, raping/sodomizing, sex-enslaving, and slaughtering Christians in Egypt. MB members, despite being banned in Egypt, are still crucifying people following Morsi’s ouster by the Egyptian army. The MB is active in most countries everywhere around the world, including Canada & the U.S. despite their banning, with horrendous results.

   Mr. Tarek Fatah is a devout Muslim who is a Canadian and one opposed to violent jihadism. He mentions at 2.40 minutes into the short video of an interview in September 2011 that the term “al-Islamia” was used by the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1930s and ’40s to describe the doctrine and ideology of their brand of “Arab Fascism”.   

[13]  You’ll discover a helpful, short article on the benefits of having a mentor to get to that sometimes tricky 1% better here.

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GaryFPatton

Hi! You've connected to 'The People Development Guy' in Toronto. I am a people's coach and human resource management consultant & workshop leader. To assist you with a quick overview, I specialize in business & life coaching plus training in organizations that measurably improves the performance of people! I help people flourish and organizations prosper by relating and serving better cross-culturally & cross-generationally! It's my heart, as a Follower of Jesus, to be a conversation partner with you and a servant to you in any relationship we develop. Please see my 'page' "On Truth" for a quick outline of the purpose of my Blog.

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